Showing posts with label Curries/ Kuralu. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Curries/ Kuralu. Show all posts

Saturday, August 7, 2010

CABBAGE CURRY ..WITH AVA

CABBAGE CURRY...
Cabbage Ava pettina curry is famous in andhra side ,and even in traditional functions, because it doesnt have onion or garlic..There are many varieties of curries we do with cabbage,but this one is prepared in coastal andhra homes,and andhra is famous for  ava pettina kuralu..

Materials:
Chopped cabbage - 2 cups
Salt
Tamarind paste 1 tsp
 thick pulp made of
lime sized tamarind
Seasoning:
Oil 2 tbsp
Urad dal 1/2 tsp
Channa daal 1/2 tsp
Red chilli (slits) 2 nos
Green chilli 3 nos(slits)
Curry leaves

For ava mixture:
Mustard seeds 1 tsp
Redchilli 1 no
Green chilli 1 no
Haldhi a pinch
Salt a pinch
Grind these 5 items into a thick paste
by adding 1 tbsp of water and
keep it aside.
Method:
Boil and cook the chopped cabbage pieces by adding  water,in a prestige cooker for 2 whisles..switch off and let it cool.
After it is cooled open the cooker and strain the water from the cabbagepieces.
Now add tamarind pulp  and salt and again cook for 5 more mins,after it is cooked switch off and let it cool.
In the meanwhile prepare ava mixture ,it will be just 1 tbsp full and keep it aside.
After the cabbage pieces are cooled , strain  away fully the tamarind pulp,water from the cooked cabbage pieces and keep it aside.
Now place a pan and add 2 to 3 tbsp of oil, next add urad daal,redchilli slits,and saute well.
Next add green chilli slits,hing,haldhi and curry leaves and mix well.
Now add the cooked and strained cabbage pieces,and mix well.
Cook in low flame for 3 minutes and switch off.
Now add the ava paste in the cabbage curry and mix well.
Let it settle for more than half an hour to get the yummy taste.
Ideal with hot rice

Thursday, August 5, 2010

ALOO FRY

ALOO FRY
1 st variety..

Materials:
Chopped aloo 2 cups
Medium sized
Oil 2 tbsp
Dhania powder 1/2 tsp
Jeera powder 1/2 tsp
Red chillie powder 1 tsp
Salt
Method..


  • Peel off aloo and chop into medium sized pieces.
  • Place a pan on the stove,add oil to it,and also add the chopped aloo pieces in to it,after heating.
  • Stir fry occasionally with a lid on.
  • When lid is placed the pieces will turn tender and soft.Add salt.
  • After the aloo pieces are fried add dhania powder,jeera powder,and chilli powder,saute well.
  • The easiest dish which  even amateurs can do but also a tasty one.
2nd variety...


BOILED ALOO FRY:


  • The aloo is washed,boiled and peeled ,then made in to pieces and fry till they are cooked.
  • Then sprinkle salt,chilli powder as  for above dish..
  • Optional...before starting frying boiled aloo..do tadka with Urad,Chana dals,red chillies and curry leaves..and continue the process as said above..

Sunday, August 1, 2010

ALOO ULLIKARAM KURA..POTATO ONION CURRY

ALOO ULLI KARAM KURA..POTATO ONION CURRY..

There are many varieties we do with aloo,and here is one such variety without spices..

Materials..


  • Aloo..2 cups

Boiled and mashed aloo

  • Onions 1 no chopped
  • 2 redchillies(onions +redchillies)

These two are  made into paste-1/2 cup

  • Tamarind paste-1 tsp

For seasoning:


  • Oil  3 tbsp
  • Urad dal 1/2 tsp
  • Channa daal 1/2 tsp
  • Red mirchi slits of 3 nos
  • Mustard 1/2 tsp
  • Green mirchi 2 nos
  • Curry leaves 
  • Haldhi a pinch

Method:


  • Place a pan on the stove,add 2 tbsp oil to it and let it heat.
  • After it is heated add mustard seeds,urad and channa daals, red chilli slits, and after they are popped add green chilli slitsand curry leaves.
  • Saute well,now add the redchilli onion mixture and fry for 3 to 4  mins, in low flame .
  • Now add the mashed aloo and mix well,lastly add 1 tsp tamarind paste(or make tamarind juice with 1/4 cup of water)and saute well..
  • It will take 3 to 5 mins time to cook and settle.Switch off the stove,

and serve hot with hot rice or rotis..

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

ALOO BESAN CHHAPATHI CURRY

ALOO-BESAN CHHAPPATHI CURRY
The easiest chhappathi ki sabji,which even children like to have with chhappathi or puri,is given here.
Materials:
Besan powder 1/2 cup
Chopped aloo 2 nos
Chopped onion 1/2 cup
Salt
Oil 2 spoons
Mustard  seeds 1/2 tsp
Jeera 1/2 tsp
Red chilli 1
Green chilli 2 nos
Curry leaves
Haldhi a pinch
Method:
Place a pan on the stove ,add oil to it.
After heating,add mustard seeds and jeera,after spluttering add red and green chilli pieces ,curry leaves , then onion pieces ,lastly aloo pieces,saute it .
Now add water(1 cup),let it cook for 5 mins.
Then after 5 mins, add water (2  cups) to 1/2 cup besan powder,and  mix well.
Ilike the consistancy of the curry to be soft and loosen thats why i add 2 cups.
Then add the besan water to the aloo mixture and cook in low flame.
See that the bottom of the curry wont turn black,stir it for every 3 mins.
Like wise cook till the aloo piece is cooked.Lastly add salt.Transfer in to a serving bowl,and serve hot with rotis,phulkas or puris.
Children and even elders  like this as it is not spicy,and it is soft.

Saturday, July 24, 2010

CAPSICUM ALOO TOMATO CURRY

CAPSICUM ALOO TOMATO CURRY
Again this is a curry ideal for rotis and chhappathis.
Materials:
Capsicum chopped pieces 1 cup
Aloo peeled and chopped into pieces1 cup
Tomato pieces 1 cup
Onion chopped pieces 1 cup
Dhania jeera powder 1 tsp
Red chilli powder 1 tsp
Green chilli 2 nos .slits.
Salt
Corn flour 2 tsp
Kothmeer
Seasoning:
Oil 2 tbsp
Mustard seeds 1/2 tsp
Channa & urad daals 1/2 tsp each
Jeera 1/4 th tsp
Red chilli .1 no. slits.
Method:
Place a pan on the stove add 2 tbsp oil,and after heating add channa,urad daals,mustard and jeera,redchilli slits and saute well.
Then add onion pieces fry till transculent next add chopped pieces of aloo, tomato,capsicum ,and cook in a low temp.If u want u can add 1/2 cup of water,and when it is half cooked add chilli and dhania jeera powder,and lastly salt.Finally add 2 tbsp of corn flour to which 1/2 cup of water is added,its used to bind well.Mix well,switch off after it is done.Garnish with kothmeer before serving with rotis or chhappathis...

Sunday, July 4, 2010

TAVVA CAPSICUM ALOO CURRY

  • TAVVA CAPSICUM ALOO CURRY

TAVVA CAPSICUM ALOO CURRY:

  • This is a curry made of capsicum in a tawa,very well goes with naans, rotis,phulks,puris and also bread toasts.I t takes hardly 15 min to complete the curry.
  • Chopped capsicum-2 to 3 cups

(Here i used 1 yellow capsicum and
1 green capsicum)

  • Boiled aloo- 2 nos

Aloo should be boiled ,peeled & mashed


  • Green mirchi 3 nos
  • Dhania powder 1 tsp
  • Jeera powder 1/2 tsp
  • Red chilli powder-1 tsp
  • Amchur-powder 1 tsp
  • Jeera a pinch
  • Haldhi a pinch
  • Corriander leaves a few

Method:


  • Place a TAWA on the stove add 2 tbsp oil to it.
  • After the oil is heated add jeera and haldhi,then add chopped capsicum pieces, keep the stove in low flame,saute well ,and cover the tawa with a lid.
  • After 3 min remove lid,mix well add salt,and again cover the lid.
  • Again after 3 min remove the lid ,and saute,now add mashed aloo,green mirchi slits,a little water and mix well.
  • After 5 min add dhaniya powder ,jeera powder,chilli powder and amchur powder,and kothmeer and mix well.
  • Now cover with lid ,and cook in low flame.
  • After 5 minutes  switch off the stove,and let it remain with  the lid on.
  • After 15 mins transfer the curry into a bowl and garnish with corriander leaves.
  • Serve with rotis or naans.





 Pic clicked while cooking in tawa

CABBAGE ,SCRAPPED COCONUTCURRY

Cabbage curry in a very simple and easy way,a recipe from traditional background without garlic and spices,its done in both my mothers house and inlaws house.
Even children eat this without doing fuss as it is a curry without spices.Acidic persons and also old family members opt this as it is not hot and spicy .After a hot and spicy dished meals in week ends the tummy can be given rest with simple curry as such.
Materials:
Chopped cabbage 4 cups
Salt
Haldhi a pinch
Seasoning:
Urad dal 1 tsp
Channa daal 1 tsp
Red chillies 2 nos
Green chillies 2 to 3 nos
Hing
Curry leaves a few
Grated raw coconut 1/2 cup
Method:
Boil  the chopped cabbage with water ,add salt ,after it is cooked,drain all  the excess water and keep aside.
Place a pan on the stove,add oil to it,and add seasoning,urad and channa daals,green and redchillies slits,hing and curry leaves,saute well,after they pop,add the boiled & drained cabbage pieces,and mix well.
Swich off the stove,and after cooling sprinkle the grated raw coconut.It is ready to eat.It wont stay for a longer time due to grated raw coconut..Immediately after preparing you have to consume it within 3 to 4 hours.Ideal with rice.Generally doctors recommend to eat more curry in each meal,this variety can be had as such.Rich in fibre.

GREEN PEAS PANEER MASALA

GREEN PEAS,PANEER MASALA:

Materials:

Green peas 1/2 cup
 (boiled and made in to a paste )
Paneer small cubes 1cup
( fried till light brown in a little oil)
Chopped onion2 cups
(Half quantity should be made in to a paste)
Tomato puree 1/2 cup
or
Amchur powder 1 tsp
Ginger garlic paste 1 tsp
or
Ginger paste
(If u r allergic to garlic smell)
Cashewnuts,poppy seeds
made in to paste-1/2 cup

Chilli powder 1 tsp
Dhaniya jeera powder 1 tsp
Garam masala 1 tsp
Salt
Oil 2 to 3  tbsp

Method:

Place a pan add 3 tbsp of oil,add 1 cup of chopped onion and fry in low temp.Then  after 3 min add  onion paste,and fry then add ginger garlic paste,and saute it,now add tomato puree and boiled green peas paste,and cashew poppy seeds paste,mix well and cook with 1/2 cup of water.Then add dhaniya, chilli , jeera powder ,garam masala powder and  saute well .Cook for 10  min.
Lastly add paneer cubes mix well.Let it simmer with a lid for 5 min in low temp and switch off.
Goes well with rotis ,naans,chhappathis and also rice.



Thursday, July 1, 2010

CABBAGE CURRY

CABBAGE CURRY...

Ingredients:
Cabbage...Chop.. 2 large cups         Tomatoes...Finely chopped-2 no.s
Salt..To taste 
Dhania...Coriander powder..1 tbsp
Chilli powder..1 tsp
Ginger..Finely chopped..1 tsp
Urad dal..1tsp
Chana dal ..1 tsp
Mustard..1/2 tsp
Jeera..1/2 tsp
Method..
  • Place a kadai on the stove and add 2 tbsp oil,after heating add urad dal,chana dal, mustard seeds, Jeera and Ginger. 
  • After spluttering,add  chopped cabbage and close the lid.Let it cook in low flame with a lid on it( Generally if you add salt to it and close the lid it will give out enough water to cook. You neednot add extra water.)
  • After it is half cooked add dhania powder, jeera powder and chilli powder, tomato pieces.
  • After tomato and cabbage is fully cooked, Open the lid and cook for 2 mins,so that extra water is evaporated.
  • Switch it full when it is fully done.
Very ideal for rotis and warm rice.

MIXED VEGETABLE CURRY




MIXED VEGETABLE CURRY
Ingredients:

Mixed Vegetables Packet(Carrots, peas, Beans, Cauliflower, Lima beans)- 1
Onion- 1
Potatoes- 3[Boil it seperately/ microwave for 10-15 mins and mash it]
Tomatoes-4
Ginger-Garlic Paste-1 spn
Cardamoms-3 no.s
Cinamon stick- 1 inch
Dhania powder- 2 Tb spn
Jeera powder- 1 1/2 Tb spn
Garam Masala powder- 2 Tb spn
Pepper- 1/4 Tb spn
Turmeric - 1/8 Tb spn
Amchur(Dry Mango powder)- 1/4 Tbspn(Optional)
Salt (As per taste)
Red chilli powder- 1/2 Tb spn
Sugar- 3/4 Tb spn
Coriander Leaves- For Garnishing
Lemon juice-1 Tbspn(optional)

Method:
  • Half boil the vegetables(either in microwave or outside on the gas) and keep it aside.
  • Take some oil into the pan and fry cardmom, cinamon stick until you get nice aroma.
  • Then put chopped onion into it fry for 3 mins and also add ginger garlic paste. Fry onions until they are translucent.
  • Now add chopped tomatoes into it and cook until they are soft. And then add the vegetables and also add boiled and mashed potatoes into it. 
  • Add all the other ingredients except lemon juice and coriander leaves into it.(Dhania, Jeera, Garam masala powders,pepper,turmeric, amchur,salt,sugar,redchilli powder).
  • Adjust water for the right consistency and let it cook.
  • When it is cooked and when you just above to switch it off add the lemon juice into it.
  • After switching off the stove, add coriander leaves .

This can be taken with rice/ roti's.
A dish from Sris kitchen.

ALOO-PALAK CURRY

Ingredients:

Potato/Aloo- 5 no.s
Spinach - 1 Cup
Onion(Medium)-1 no.(Finely chopped)
Jeera- 1 Tbspn
Garlic- 2-3 pods(Finely chopped)
Ginger-2" piece(Finely chopped)
Salt
Red chilli powder-3/4 Tbspn
Dhania powder-3/4 Tbspn
Garam Masala powder-1/2 Tbspn
Sugar-1/4 Tbspn

Method:

  • First peel off potato skins cut into pieces and boil them and keep aside.
  • Now take some oil into kadai and put jeera ,ginger & garlic pieces. When it is fried, add onions pieces and fry until it is golden brown. Now add spinach into it and cook with the closed lid.
  • After it is almost cooked and the boiled potato pieces, and also add all the spices into it (Red chilli powder, dhania powder, garam masala powder,sugar,salt) and mix everything and let it cook for 5 more minutes.
  • Switch off the stove when it is done.
Now serve this curry with hot chappatis.
This recipe is quite new to me,and i got it from my daughter Rathnasris kitchen.

Sunday, June 27, 2010

BEERAKAYA KOTHIMEERA ULLI KARAM KURA:


Ridge gourd or beerakaya pieces-12 pieces
peel off the skin and cut the beerakaya lengthywise
into 3 inch pieces,again the three inch piece is to slice in to 4 long pieces up tp three fourth
of the piece with the end intact--guthi vankaya mukkalaga
Kothimeera-washed and cleaned well,1 handful of kothimeera leaves
Onion slices-2 tbsp
Green mirchi -8 numbers
Salt
(Those people who need garlic can add into  this while grinding)
Grind  kothimeera,green chillies and salt together and stuff into the guthi beerakaya pieces
Method:
Place a pan on the stove,add 2 tbsp oil,then after heating add the stuffed beerakaya pieces
and cook in a low flame till it is done.
This is a variety of beerakaya kura,very soft without masalas.Tasty with rotis and rice.

Sunday, June 13, 2010

BABY CORN WITH CASHEWS CURRY

BABY CORN WITH CASHEW NUTS CURRY:

Materials:


  • Baby corn-1/4 th  kg

Washed well,and slice in to 1 inch pieces
  • Chopped onions-1 cup
  • Greenchillies 6 nos .slits
  • Tomato chopped-2 nos
  • Or tomato puree 1 cup
  • Cashew nuts,badam paste 2 tbsp
  • Oil-2 to 3 tbsp
  • Garam masala powder 1tsp
  • Red chillie powder 1 tsp
  • Dhania powder 1 tsp
  • Jeera powder 1/2 tsp
  • Salt
  • Garnishing:kothmeer/corriander leaves

Method:


  • Place a kadai on the stove and add 1/2 tbsp oil to it.
  • After heating add chopped baby corn pieces and fry for 5 mins in low flame.
  • Then remove them in to another dish,again place the same kadai on the stove.
  • Add the remaining oil to it,then add chopped onion,green chilli slits,saute in a low fire.
  • Now add tomato puree or chopped tomatoes to the kadai,and cook for a while.
  • Next add kaju badam paste to it,and fry a little while on low flame.
  • Lastly add half fried baby corn pieces,and add 1/4 th  cup of water to it.
  • Let it cook,for 2 mins,now add 1 tsp garam masala powder,chillie powder,1 tsp dhania powder, jeera powder,salt and 1 cup of water and let it cook for 10 mins in a low flame with lid on.
  • Switch off ,and serve in a serving dish.

Garnishing can be done with kothmeer.
 Source...of this  recipe is from cookery shows telecasted in TVs

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

BEANS-BARBOTTIS

BARBOTTIS CURRY
Materials:
Barbottis(a variety in beans)chopped-2 cups
Grated raw coconut -1/2 cup
Salt
Seasoning:
Urad dal 1 tsp
Red and green chillies slits
Curry leaves a fea
Hing a pinch
Method:
Place a kadai on the stove,add 1to 1 1/2  tbsp oil to it,then after heating add urad dal,red chillie slits and green chillie slits,saute for  a little while.Keep the stove in low flame.Then add curry leaves ,hing and lastly the chopped beans to it.Place a lid on this,and cook in a low flame stirring quite often.We place a plate containing of a half cup of water on the kadai ,so it will be cooked tender with the water vapour in it.
After it is cooked add salt,and switch off after 2 to 3 minutes.Place the lid again and completely let it cool for half an hour.After it is cooled add grated raw coconut and stir it.Transfer in to a serving bowl.

With very less oil and only boiled it is good food and healthy for elders and small children and acidity people.Once in a week i prepare this item.

Monday, May 17, 2010

SORAKAYA PAPPU KURA

SORAKAYA PAPPU KURA:
Materials required...

  • Anapakaya or sorakaya -chopped pieces -2 cups
  • Moong daal (Yellow colour)-1/2 to 3/4cup
  • Salt to taste

Seasoning:

  • Oil  2 to 2  1/2 table spoons
  • Urad dal 1 tsp
  • Red chilli (slits)2 nos
  • Green chilli (slits) 6 nos
  • Curry leaves a few
  • Hing a pinch


Method:

  • Boil and cook chopped sorakaya pieces for 5 min in water.
  • Add  washed (yellow) moong daal to the water containing  anapakaya pieces.
  • After it is cooked add salt, and set it aside.
  • After cooling,Strain the left over water .
  • Now heat a pan add  oil,then add red chilli slits,urad dal and saute for a while.
  • Now add the green chilli slits along with curry leaves and hing,and add the cooked anapakaya pieces to the pan,saute well and switch off the stove after frying for 2 to 3 mins in a low flame.
  • Transfer in to a dish .
  • This curry a simple  and plain goes well with rice and rotis.But health wise a safe one which consists of less oil.

Thursday, May 13, 2010

CAULIFLOWER CURRY

Ingredients:

  • Cauliflower florets
  • Onion- 1 Medium
  • Tomato- 2 Medium
  • Oil - 2 Tb spns
  • Salt- To taste
  • Red Chilli powder- To your spice level
  • Pav bhaji masala(optional)- 1 Tb spn
  • Chana dal - 1 Tb spn
  • Mustard seeds - 1 Tb spn
  • Jeera - 1 Tb spn
  • Turmeric- 1/4 T spn
Method:
1. Take a pan, add oil to it. Now add the seasoning- Chana Dal, Mustard seeds, Jeera.
2. Now add onion to it and cook until the onions are brown in colour.
3. Now add cauliflower florets and cook for a few minutes...always in medium flame..with lid on..to avoid burning in the bottom.
4. Next add tomato to it and also add salt, red chilli powder and turmeric( pav bhaji masala powder which is optional).
5. Let it cook and switch off the stove when it is done.
A variation recipe for rotis.

BEERAKAYA PAPPU KURA/RIDGE GOURD CURRY

BEERAKAYA PESARA PAPPU KURA..RIDGE GOURD MOONG DAL CURRY...


Andhra regions one more soft and  easy vegetarian curry done regularly in coastal region..is this.
Ingredients:
Ridge Gourd/ Beerakayalu peeled and chopped pieces..4 cups
Moong Dal- 3/4 cup

For Tempering..

Urad Daal- 2 Tb spns
Red Chillies- 5 to 6(According to your spice levels)
Green chillies - 4 to 5
Mustard seeds- 1 tea spn(optional)
Curry Leaves chop..1 tbsp
Hing/ Asafoetida- 2 pinches
Salt - To taste
Oil- 3 to 4 Table spoons



Method:
1. Cut the Ridgegourd to bite size as shown in the picture.
2. Boil the ridge gourd pieces in water for 10 minutes.

3. Now add..  washed moong dal, in to the ridge gourd pieces pan.

4. Now let them cook. After they got cook, filter/ strain the remaining water completely..the dal should not be cooked until mushy..the shape of the dal should be seen.

5. Let it cool down.
6. Now take a pan and add the seasoning- Urad dal, Mustard seeds, Red chillies, Green chillies, Curry Leaves, Hing. And after that add the cooked ridge guard pieces,daal into the pan and also add salt to taste.

Here you go for..Video..



7. Cook for 2 mins and switch off the stove.

This dish will be very nice with rice as well as rotis.

Monday, May 10, 2010

THOTAKURA CURRY

THOTAKURA CURRY:
Chopped thota kura-4 cups
Oil
Seasoning:
Urad dal 1 tsp
Channa daal 1 tsp
Red chillies 2 nos
made in to slits
Ginger 1" made in to pieces
Green chillies 6 nos
(ginger and green chillies are to be made in to a paste form)
Hing
Salt
Method:
Place a pan on the stove and add oil 2spoons in to it.
After heating add urad,channa daals and redchillie slits as seasoning , lastly add
either hing or garlic(optional) ,haldhi,then ginger green chillie paste and fry in a low temp.
After it is fried,add chopped thotakura to the pan and cover with a lid.
Keep the lid on and mix the curry well in equal  intervels till it is cooked.By keeping the lid
the curry will be cooked equally without burning .Lastly add salt and transfer in to a bowl.
Serve hot.
Those people who are habituated to use garlic can use it while seasoning..

Tuesday, May 4, 2010

BEET ROOT CURRY

Ingredients:

  • Beetroot..2 cups chopped cubes
  • Grated Coconut(optional)..3 tbsp
      Either freshly grated or frozen
  • Salt- To taste
  • Red chilli powder..1/2 Tsp..or according to your spice eating levels
Seasoning:
  • Mustard seeds 1/2 tsp
  • Jeera 1/2 tsp
  • Chana dal 1 tsp
  • Oil..2 to 3 tbsp
  • Red chillies-2 no.s made in to slits

Method:

  • Peel the skin of beetroot and chop in to cubes .
  •  Let them cook in a  dowpan coolwith 4 cups nof water,strain the excess water after done.. and keep aside.
  • Place a saute pan on medium flame, add some oil to it and add chana dal, red chillies, jeera, mustard seeds and let the seed splutter.
  • Add the beet root pieces to the pan,  add salt (if necessary) and add red chilli powder and stir them.
  • You can add little grated coconut just before you switch off the heat. This is optional.
  • Coconut adds a lot of flavor and authentic south Indian flare to it.

BHENDI CURRY/OKRA CURRY

Bendakaya Tomato  kura
Ingredients:
  1. Okra-200 gms
  2. Tomatoes- 2 no.s
  3. Dhania Powder -1 Tb spn
  4. Jeera Powder- 1 Tb spn
  5. Salt- To taste
  6. Red Chilli powder- 1/2 Tb spn
For Seasoning:
  • Mustard seeds
  • Jeera
  • Oil
Method:

  • Take a pan, put some oil and add the seasoning. (Jeera and Mustard seeds)
  • After it starts spluttering add tomato piece and cook until it is soft
  • Now add cut bendi/okra and also add jeera, coriander, red chilli powder, salt to that.
  • Cook it on medium flame and keep stir them in the middle so that okra is not burnt.
  • When it is done switch off the stove.
  • And serve them with rotis/ rice.

Tip   :
  • Never cook okra with its lid closed. Always cook them with out lid. If needed you can close the lid and cook for the last 5 minutes.
  • You can substitute tomato with amchur/ dry mango powder.